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These are studies of other researchers supporting the outcome of our own research.


1.Epidemiological population surveys.

In the studies we will refer to a percentage of about 4% of the population showed to have experienced hearing voices. Most of them over 2/3rd could not  be diagnosed with a psychiatric illness. In these studies a psychiatric diagnostic instrument was used. A small selection.

Tien (1991) Distribution of Hallucinations in the population,  Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.26,287-92

Eaton ( et all 1991) Screening for psychosis in the general population with a self report interview.  Journal of Nervous and Mental  Disease 179, 689-693.

Bijl, ( e.a. 1998) Prevalence of psychotic disorder in the general population. Social  Psychiatric and Psychiatric Epidemiology 33, 587-596.

The following graphic made by Jim van Os shows the results of this study:



2. Research about the relationship between trauma and psychosis  especially hearing voices.

A small selection

Read (et all 2005) Childhood trauma , psychosis and schizophrenia a literature review .

Acta psychiatr. Scandinavica vol 112 no 5 pp 330-350. They report a literature overview of 180 studies. Concluding: “ Symptoms considered indicative of psychosis and Schizophrenia, particular hallucinations are at least as strongly related to childhood abuse and neglect as many other mental health problems”

An important prospective study of 4,045 adults in the Netherlands was published,

Janssen et al. 2004) Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. Acta. Psychiatr. Scandinavica 109: 38-45. This study assessed childhood abuse at baseline and then first episode psychotic symptoms at two year follow up. They found that reported childhood abuse (sexual, physical, emotional abuse and neglect before age 16) predicted the development of positive psychotic symptoms during the period of the study on three separate measures of psychosis.


3. Studies about the positive influence of hearing voices support groups. A small selection.

Meddings (et all 2006)The voices don’t like it. Mental health Today Sept. 26-30. They evaluated a hearing voices group (pre- and six month after) following the group for two years. Voice hears started to use different coping strategies  (from 2.9 to 5.7), they started to talk with more people about their voices (from 2.7 to 14.9) They also were less frequently hospitalized from an average of 39 days per year in the three years previous to their group participation to average 8 days per year during the group meetings.

see also Til Wykes (et all 1999) Group treatment of auditory hallucinations;  British journal of Psychiatry 175, pp 180-185.


4         Research confirming the lacking scientific validity of the schizophrenia concept.

An illness entity Schizophrenia does not exist in reality but is a construct that does not differentiate people scientifically.  It is unjustified to identify hearing voices with schizophrenia although that is done in the DSM the American diagnostic system. Prejudices like a chronic disease and having to take medication a lifelong and not being able to function at the original level or being able to hold intimate relationships are all false and promoted by the concept and the prejudices, which are harmful.

Jan Dirk Blom (2003) Deconstructing Schizophrenia; Boom  Amsterdam The first sentence, concluding this PhD study says: The scientific validity of the  schizophrenia concept is zero.

Bentall Richard P. (1990) Reconstructing schizophrenia. Routledge London. A diagnosis of schizophrenia is only rooted in the conviction of psychiatrists and misses any scientific validity.
Boyle Mary Mary. (1990; 2002) Schizophrenia- A scientific delusion? Routledge London.


5        Studies confirming that People with psychosis are people with problems not patients with illness

Most voice hears who have recovered from their psychosis or from the hinder with their voices have discovered and reported their voices being rooted in the problems they had experienced in their lives.  The 50 voice hearers who told their recovery story in the book Living with voices report this but also several professionals write about this reality.

A very small selection:

Thomas P. (1997) The dialectics of schizophrenia Free association books London.

Johnstone, L (2000) Users and abusers of psychiatry: a critical look at psychiatric practice.(2nd edn) London: Routledge

Johnstone, L (2008)  Diagnosis. In eds R Tummey and T Turner, Critical issues in mental health. Basingtoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hornstein G.A. (2009)Agnes’s Jacket : A psychologist search for the meaning of madness

Rodale, N.Y.: Macmillan

Ron Coleman (1997) recovery an alien concept P&P. publishing Isle of Lewis Scotland